Floriculture is the art and knowledge of growing flowers to perfection.Being a branch of horticulture,it deals with the cultivation of flowers and ornamental crops from the time of planting to the time of harvesting.It also includes production of planting materials through seeds,cuttings,budding,grafting and marketing of flowers and flower produce.In Meghalaya,flower lovers originally practiced floriculture as a hobby.Today,the growing demand has lead to flowers also being grown for commercial reasons. Meghalaya is known for a variety of rich flora and species of orchids that grow wild. The government has come out with a scheme to provide the growers with disease free planting material, organic/inorganic fertilizers,plant protection chemicals,garden tools and implements for a minimum area of 2000 square metres along with a package of practices for commercial production.
A few of the recommended ornamental crops are orchids,chrysanthemums, gerberras, carnations,liliums,strelitzia reginae,gladiolus, asters,marigolds,statice,gomphrenas, helichyrsums,zinnias,roses and different kind of house plants.In Tamil Nadu,flowers such as rose, malligai,chrysanthemum,marigold,jathi malli,marikolundu and carnations are grown. Edward Rose and Andhra Red Rose are two varieties of roses grown in the plains of the State.They need well-drained sandy loam soil.Consumption of flowers in the southern States is much higher than in the northern States.Flowers are used by florists, flower rentals,perfume industries and as garlands. Centres where modern flowers are in demand are big cities like Mumbai,Pune,Bangalore, Chennai,Hyderabad,Delhi,Chandigarh,Lucknow and Calcutta.
In the Andaman and Nicobar Islands there are around 2000 species of flowering plants,of which nearly 215 are endemic to these islands.These flowering plants include around 110 species of orchids.Here plantation crops like coconut are used as an intercrop for growing orchids.Coconut plants also provide shade to the orchids.Other flowers,ferns,cycads,succulents, bamboo and ornamental medicinal plants also grow naturally in forests.In Orissa,floriculture involves the growing of flowers like rose, crossandra,jasmine and marigold.In Punjab,floriculture mainly includes the cultivation of different species of gladiolus.
Village Majra,near Chandigarh and village Dappar near Patiala are main centres of gladiolus production in Punjab.Flowers that are cultivated in Andhra Pradesh for floricultural purposes are the rose,jasmine,chrysanthemum and crossandra. The main districts that produce these flowers are Hyderabad,Rangareddy,Guntur,Prakasam, Kurnool,Cuddapah,Ananthapur and Chittoor. The cool temperate climate of Jammu and Kashmir makes it the ideal place for growing flowers.Some of the flowers cultivated here are wisterias,tulips, carnations, dahlias and lilies.